Development Moral Kohlberg

Our next topic is moral development. And our main researcher for this is going to be Lawrence Kohlberg. So in terms of moral development or moral decision-making, it's important to understand that it's, not just any decision that we make it actually has to be a moral decision. So lying cheating, stealing those are all like kind of obvious ones, but there are like bigger ones, right?

There are ones that kind of pop up every single day like things related to social issues, your beliefs voting, whether. To be nice to someone or be mean to them, right? Those are kind of like the day-to-day things outside the big ones. So just make sure that anytime you're applying Kohlberg you're thinking of moral decisions. Now, for those of you that had adolescent psych, you have a perfect foundation for this. And you actually probably know it better than you even need to know it for the AP test. So Lawrence Kohlberg is a stage theorist.

So he says that we developed through a series of stages that have. Noticeable differences between them, he actually breaks down his moral development into three levels. And within each level, there are two stages. Now as far as we know for the AP test, they pretty much only test on the levels.

So while this slide, definitely lists kind of like what the stage would look like, you really just have to have a solid understanding of the level itself. So let's start with the conventional level at the conventional level. We usually associate children with this and. Generally before the age of nine with this it's all about themselves.

So in the first part of the stage, an action is going to be wrong if it's punished. But in the second part of the stage, an action is right if it's rewarded. So if a little kid is looking at a cookie on the counter and thinking about taking it from the counter, if they think that they're going to get caught now I'm done, they will not steal that cookie. If they think they can get away with it, then they probably will steal that cookie as. The stage progresses it's more about kind of even like, positive reinforcement, right, they're looking for that reward. So now let's say that a kid has a cookie, and they have a sibling next to them, and they go to share that cookie they're like here you can have some as they look to make that decision about should I share my cookie or not.

They were probably paying attention to is somebody around me that will reward me in some way maybe they'll give me another cookie, or they'll, give me praise or. Whatever else so as we progress through our thinking, we move into the conventional level, which is level two. This one, according to Kohlberg is early adolescence.

So about age nine or ten until kind of the probably mid to late teens. So in the conventional level, it's a little more about others. So you're looking at society, you're looking at friend groups and the people that are around you. So in the early part of this level, you mostly care about your decision-making tied to the people that you. Interact with every day.

So if you're going to gain the approval of your friends or your family or possibly your teachers or coworkers, then you're more likely to do that thing to make that decision, whatever it might be for example, like maybe deciding whether to pick up a shift at work. While your family is planning, a family dinner at home, or something I know, it doesn't seem like a big decision. But it is a moral decision because you're balancing time with your family with time away from your. Family so you kind of be looking at gaining the approval of the people around you, and it would really be who possibly you're you're closest to or whose opinions you value more at that time. The same thing would be true. Obviously, probably the more common examples of this would be like I, don't know, posting things on social media or possibly wanting to stand up for somebody on social media, but asking yourself like crap. If I stand up for somebody on social media is everybody going to turn on me as you move.

Through this level into the next stage, or the later part of the level it's, not just about the people that are immediately around, you's actually about rules within our society. So you start to realize that rules kind of exists for a reason and a society without them would be chaos. So it might be about a decision about speeding or something like that.

And you are really in a hurry, but you kind of look around, and you're like, you know, everybody's in a hurry. And you know, like I'm, not going to. Put other people's safety at risk because I'm running late or whatever it might be. So you start to pay attention to rules about like even lying or cheating or things like that. So whether it's cheating on a test you're cheating on a person you're gonna start to look at what society says about those things all right to move into the final level and the last two stages. This would be adolescence and adulthood. Actually, a major criticism of Kohlberg is that people may never get to this level, but let's.

Say that they did this is like well beyond the rules of society. So when we look at this part it's more about you, figuring out what's important to you, but also realizing that it's not super black and white. So in the early part of this level, so in the first stage, you start to realize that people have different opinions and different stances and that rules and laws are not absolute, so I, even look at like how police are viewed by different communities or different groups of people based on where you. Live based on your experiences and based on headlines. So we understand the law that you listen to a police officer.

You respect, a police officer. You don't run from a police officer, whatever it might be. But at this level, you start to understand that not everybody has the same opinions or experiences with police officers. So you understand that the behaviors of the decisions that you make are going to vary from group to group and culture to culture.

So as you progress through it, even more you start. To take your own personal beliefs. But also you start to make decisions that don't necessarily I, don't know how to say this like doesn't, necessarily matter for you in particular.

So you might make a decision that you believe to be highly moral and ethical. And it may benefit others, but there's, no director, immediate benefit to you. So these would be the people in our society where you make a decision.

And again, I think this is rare. But you make a decision, even though there may be repercussions or you. May get in trouble for it or something like that, but you know that it's for the good of others, and it might not even be the good of a majority. It might be a minority group. So as you look at these three different levels, and you kind of think about the stages again, you'll probably just have to know the levels, but it's going to be important to take time to apply this to a variety of situations. So the one that it's just kind of a psych thing that everybody has to be aware of is called the Heinz. Dilemma so it's taught in every AP, psych class.

And if you took ads like I'm, sure you use the Heinz dilemma as well. So I'm going to give you a second to just kind of read through the scenario at the top, and then I'll talk through it all right. So this is actually kind of a complex situation and I know that we've been using the same Dillon Heinz dilemma in psychology for a long time. But to be honest, you guys when you look at the state of health care in America. And you look at the level of disease.

Disorder mental health, all of those things it's very likely that you will encounter a situation where either you or somebody you love has a need for medication or treatment or access or coverage, or whatever it might be. And for whatever reason you can't afford it. So the question is in the most extreme scenarios, what would you do? So as you look at the Heinz dilemma, and I'm going to stop talking here soon, but as you look at this dilemma, do you agree with what he did?

Why? Or why not and why or why. Not is very important.

Okay, I also want you to think about this scenario for yourself. So I want you to think about somebody that you really love, and I want you to think about them being sick, and it's kind of a life-or-death scenario. So exactly like the Heinz dilemma, and you have an opportunity to access the medication, but you would have to break the law to do. So you'd have to steal it. So I want you to think about that? Decide what you would do in a second you're, gonna turn and talk and the why. Is very significant, what would you do and why?

And no you can't say, start a GoFundMe, because it has to be a similar scenario where you start a go fund me, but you max out, and you only have half of what the medication costs. So again, why matters.

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